• Welcome to Mrs. Norcia's Speech and Language Page


     Developing speech and language is a long and complicated process. Speech language specialists provide the following services:

         • Identification of students with communication problems through teacher or parent/guardian referral.

         • Assessment and diagnosis of students’ communication behaviors.

         • Remediation, consultation, and periodic reevaluations.

    The first five years of life are the most vital for development of speech and language skills. Between the ages of four and eight, the child should produce all speech sounds correctly and use basic elements and structures of adult language.

         • Impairments of voice, articulation, and fluency are evaluated by the speech language specialist after a written request is made by a parent/guardian. These         students, whose classification is “Eligible for Speech Language Services” (ESLS), are classified following the New Jersey Administrative Code for Special                 Education, N.J.A.C. 6A:14 procedures. Services are provided based on an Individualized Education Program (IEP).

         • Delayed expressive and/or receptive language skills are identified and evaluated by the speech language specialist and members of the Child Study Team.           Services are provided based on an Individualized Education Program (IEP) developed by the Child Study Team, student’s teacher, parent/guardian, and                 speech language specialist. The student receives therapy as a Related Service.


    Speech is considered delayed when it deviates from the speech of others and calls attention to itself and/or interferes with communication.

    Articulation delays are characterized by phoneme:

         ◊ Omission

         ◊ Substitution

         ◊ Addition

         ◊ Distortion

              ◊ Omission is when a child omits one or more sounds from a word.

                       Sample:      spoon            becomes         -poon     

                                         ice cream       becomes         i-cream

                                         star               becomes         -tar           

                                         kitchen          becomes         -itchen

               ◊ Substitution is when a child substitutes an incorrect sound for the correct sound.

                      Sample:       s and/or z becomes th      -saw      becomes      thaw

                                                                               -house   becomes      houth

                                         y becomes l                     -yellow becomes lellow

                                         l becomes w or y              -balloon becomes bawoon 

                                                                               -lion becomes yion

                                         th becomes f or t             -thumb becomes fumb

                                                                               -bathtub becomes baftub

                                                                               -both becomes bote  

            ◊ Addition is when a child adds unnecessary sounds to a word.

                   Sample:        saw becomes staw

                                       bed becomes bread

            ◊ Distortion is when a child distorts a sound in a word.

                  Sample:         er, ir, or, ur, ar                  bird becomes bawd

                                                                               father becomes fathaw

                                                                               purple becomes pawple

                  Sample:         s, z, sh, ch, j                     Air comes from the sides of the mouth rather than from the front. A child is identified as having a “lateral                                                                                   lisp.”  It sounds very “slushy” or “bubbly”.  

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